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The hippophae (sea-buckthorn) (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) belongs to the family of Elaeagnaceae. The sea-buckthorn is a dioecious plant, which means that there are male and female plants . Pollen from the male plants are transferred to the female by the wind ( up to 100m ), without participation of insects. One male plant can pollinate 10-12 female. To distinguish male from a female plants in young seedlings is very difficult. The differences appear at the beginning of fruiting. In male plants ( 2 ) the buds are large, projecting from the stem and covered by three – four scales. In female plants ( 1 ) buds are small, covered by only two scales and grow retracted to the stem.
Reproduction of sea buckthorn:
Hippophae are propagated vegetatively: using green and root cuttings or in vitro.
We offer high quality planting material produced by an in vitro method.
Cultivation of sea buckthorn
The crown of sea-buckthorn may be formed as a bush or tree. In both cases, the yield of plants is the same, but the long lasting a dendritic shape. Typically the sea-buckthorn is in the form of a bush that grows up to 2 meters, and up to 3.5 meters formed as a tree, which makes the fruit harvesting difficult.
Sea-buckthorn can be successfully grown both at home and in plantations. The tree reaches a height of 3-4 m. Usually sea-buckthorn blooms in mid-May. Flowering lasts for several days. The flowers of both male and female are very small and can be seen only at very close examination. Fruits are grainy pitted , orange to red or red with different shades of color , round or oval. The fruit weight is between 0.3 and 1.0 grams. Fruits are attached to the stem of a short handle.
The roots are located near the soil surface. The majority of the roots are located at a depth of 30 cm. The root system is much wider than the crown of the plant, reaching sometimes up to 4 m. Root system is fibrous, slightly branched. On the roots develop nodus with the size of nuts. They are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into compounds that are absorbed by the plant. The lateral roots formed buds, which develop root cuttings.
Hippophae is a light searching plant. Stems and fruits have strong cold resistance, but in very severe winters could be observed frost of flower buds, causing reduction in yields. Sea-buckthorn thrives on light and medium clay soils. Unsuitable for cultivation are soils with high salinity, carbonates or acidity.
Hippophae prefer high humidity. Shortage of soil moisture during vegetation lowers the yields. Sea-buckthorn tolerated frequent watering and overwatering with running water, but for its cultivation swamp soils should be avoided.
Planting sea buckthorn
For Sea-buckthorn plantation should be selected sunny places. It prefers light soils. If the soil is heavy clay for improving its structure is necessary prior planting to add sand. Plants are planted in a 2mx2m, 2mx3m .
Males Sea-buckthorn is planted under the wind side. If planting young seedlings choose May and June, when there is no danger of low night temperatures. When planting plants wintered best time to plant is early spring , before the development of buds .
Seedlings are planted in planting pits with dimensions 40×40 cm enriched with manure (manure to soil 1:1) and superphosphate 150-200 gr. The seedlings are planted at the level of the container, the soil is pressed strongly. Irrigate after planting.
The cultivation experience has shown that the plant responds well to organic and phosphate fertilizers. It is recommended that fruit trees be fed with organic fertilizer 5-6 kg superphosphate and 50-60 g per square meter around each root every 2-3 years. Fertilizers is better to be mixed with the soil around the plant to a depth of 8-10 cm. The use of nitrogen fertilizer is recommended only when the Sea-buckthorn is planted on poor soils.
Sea-buckthorn form fruits after 3-4 years. Fruits are formed only on shoots from the previous year. To prolong the plant life it’s necessary to carry out rejuvenating pruning of branches every 3-4 years. It is better to make partial rejuvenating pruning on individual branches, not the whole plant at once.
Some of the hippophae branches naturally wither. When forming the crown you should remove the withered branches annually. With good cares the tree /of elite varieties/ can produce up to 15-17 kg of fruit.
The fruits of sea buckthorn ripen in late August – early September. The fruit harvesting should start when fully ripe. In The fruit butter content is less in unripe and overripe fruits. For the collection of hippophae use fork made of spring steel.
Positive properties of sea buckthorn
Sea Buckthorn – one of the few multi – vitamin cultures. Its fruits are especially rich in vitamins C and carotene. It has also vitamins K, B9 and E as well as minerals iron, magnesium, manganese, boron, sulfur , aluminum, silicon, titanium. Sea buckthorn is rich in Vitamin E (tocopherol), which is useful for the prevention of vascular sclerosis and muscular dystrophy. The juice and the seeds of sea buckthorn contain an oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids.
Sea buckthorn berries have a high therapeutic effect, due to the high content of the biologically active substances (vitamins, acids, trace elements). In medicine the sea buckthorn oil produced from the fruit is widely used. Sea buckthorn is also suitable for fresh consumption and production of jams.