In vitro propagation or the way we produce our planting material is in fact vegetative propagation similar to the use of cuttings but performed in micro way in laboratory. During the process of micropropagation we make selection on new clones with better habitus and in end a very fast way to propagate plants in huge quantities. The method is preferred for many species, which are difficult to propagate with traditional methods. In vitro propagation gave huge advantage with its high coefficient of multiplication. For example in natural conditions from one plant we can produce several hundred new ones, while in vitro we can reach 1 000 000 vital and identical individuals, grown in small area.
The technology includes several stages:
- Introduction of selected elite plants in vitro culture. The introduction in tissue culture comes in several steps, sterilization of the plant, pathogen elimination
- Multiplication – propagation of plants. At this stage is the real propagation in tissue cultures. The medium in which the propagation is performed is based on micro and macro salts, plant growth regulators and agar used as gelling agent. A protocol for the optimal rate of multiplication is defined. The propagation is performed in laminar boxes, and the growth of the in vitro plants is in phytostatic chambers at full control over sterility, light and temperature regime;
- In vitro rooting by induction of adventive roots in the base of the plants. The medium for rooting is optimized and the period of root development is minimized. The rooting is performed in sterile conditions and controlled environmental factors;
- Acclimatization. That is the last process, connected with the plant propagation and in fact it is the removal of the plants from in vitro culture and their adaptation to the ex vitro conditions which are also controlled but they are not sterile. The acclimatization is performed in special chambers with peat mix and the control of temperature, humidity and lightning. After this stage the plants are stable and could be grown under greenhouse conditions.
The production of planting material in greenhouse ends with the migration of the plants to containers with peat mix in the greenhouse. There they reach the development stage that ensures their survival when they become planted in the field.